These landmark studies were hailed across the country and around the world as evidence that, given intensive education and support initiatives along with medical treatment, recovery from severe mental illness is possible.
This finding had a great impact on the mental health field because it was in opposition to the longstanding view that people with mental health symptoms could not get better, and could even expect to get worse as they aged Copeland, This research convinced people across the country and around the world that recovery from mental health difficulties is possible and even probable.
Unfortunately, the Vermont State Hospital is no longer the avant garde institution that it once was. Through the late s and s and on into the new century, funding was reduced and attention was focused on community mental health centers. With changes in key personnel and government officials, the phenomenal Vermont Story Chittick et al. The hospital has recently been decertified by Medicaid, following an investigation by the United States Department of Justice in July, Beiner, Their findings contain allegations that VSH is violating the federal statutory and constitutional rights of patients.
This was a stunning blow and a huge embarrassment. Officials are struggling to correct these insufficiencies. However, they are not looking to The Vermont Story Chittick et al. Recently a hospital official found copies of The Vermont Story and was going to discard them until they were rescued by Corey.
There are three private facilities in Vermont that provide rehabilitation services modeled after the Vermont program that worked so well; but these programs are generally not available to people with limited resources, as is usually the case for people on orders of involuntary commitment.
To its credit, Vermont has an exemplary recovery network that was developed by a group of key stakeholders, people who experience mental health difficulties. Vermont Psychiatric Survivors, an organization of people with experience in the mental health system, is well known across the country for its ability to raise money through federal, state, and private grants and for its popular statewide network of mental health recovery and Wellness Recovery Action Planning programs that are available without charge to anyone who wants to attend.
Although supported by the state department of mental health, Vermont Psychiatric Survivors is a nonprofit organization administered by people who have used the mental health system. The Executive Director reports that it has been difficult to get people who have orders of involuntary commitment to take advantage of these programs Linda Corey, personal communication, March 5, The researchers conducted a nationwide search to find programs that had been developed to meet the needs of people who have repeated involuntary commitments.
They began by contacting the state Departments of Mental Health and following up on their leads. It was a frustrating task. Very little has been done to address the specific needs of people in this category. However, many mental health recovery and peer support programs designed to serve a broader base of people with mental health difficulties were reviewed and helped inform development of the pilot project.
Of particular interest to the researchers were those that were developed by people who had been or are currently users of mental health services, including people who have had involuntary commitments. WRAP programs, which can be led by anyone but are most often led by others with similar issues, help people design and use a personal recovery plan Copeland, From the onset of this project, it was clear that the State of Vermont Department of Mental Health and the people interviewed in the study wanted to include some form of individualized recovery planning like WRAP in the pilot project.
I used her program, actually, at the hospital. What was useful and not useful about WRAP? I think it was really useful, because it made me look at symptoms.
It made me look at warning signs. It made me put those into reality. WRAP is a program in which participants identify internal and external resources for facilitating recovery, and then use these tools to create their own individualized plan for successful living Copeland, b. The creation of a WRAP plan generally begins with the development of a personal Wellness Toolbox, consisting of simple, safe, and free or low-cost self-management strategies such as a healthy diet, exercise, sleep patterns, and pursuit of adult life roles Copeland, b.
Using this Toolbox, the person creates an individualized plan for engaging each strategy to obtain and maintain their recovery. WRAP also encourages development of a crisis plan, which states how the person would like to be treated in times of crisis similar to an advance directive for inpatient psychiatric care , as well as a post-crisis plan for getting back on the road to recovery Copeland, b.
Cook corroborated the findings of the study Copeland, with those of two other studies, Corey and a study by the State of Minnesota Buffington, Findings from these studies showed significant increases in people gaining a sense of hope that they could and would recover, as well as the ability to recognize early warning signs of mental health difficulties. People learned to use tools, skills, and strategies for coping with and relieving symptoms. These studies showed that people prefer natural supports instead of using the mental health system as their support, and that they benefit from support groups and from close connection with other people with similar life challenges.
There were significant increases in their ability to develop daily plans that support wellness and recovery and to create crisis plans or advance directives that others could use to assist them in an emergency. Finally, following WRAP training, people reported being more comfortable obtaining information about community services and engaging in self-advocacy. In , the federal Center for Mental Services contracted with the author to develop a recovery curriculum called Taking Action that would be piloted, revised according to the findings of the pilot, and then distributed for national use in mental health agencies, organizations, and institutions.
In developing this intensive curriculum, the author worked with a steering committee of 15 people who represented federal, state, and local agencies. These included representatives of various cultural groups including Hispanics, Native Americans, and African Americans from various economic and educational backgrounds. The pilot programs in three locations began in January Because the author developed this curriculum, the information she gathered in this process also informed the development of the Community Links Program.
Of particular import to this program was the focus on cultural diversity making information more easily accessible to people who may have difficulty learning , flexibility in program implementation, values and ethics of mental health recovery, adaptation for use in various settings, a wellness rather than an illness orientation, working toward achieving personal life goals and dreams, community integration, and using action planning to achieve that integration.
Abraham Low can be credited with pioneer recovery thinking and the earliest mental health recovery-based program on record, Recovery, Inc. Low started an organization to disseminate his methods in This organization continues to grow and be strongly influential in the mental health field.
Low is now deceased, other family members and staff continue to carry on his important work. The program uses surprisingly simple methods to help people dislodge themselves from emotional ruts. The process begins by learning to modify thoughts and behavior. Following a structured framework, the program uses practical coping techniques and methods developed by Dr.
The program avoids use of diagnostic terms. The Recovery framework of observing behavior eliminates complexes, childhood memories, dream experiences and subconscious thought. Low wrote a book, Mental Health through Will-Training, that has been in continuous publication since that time. Although many of the examples are dated, Dr. People who have used this program as their primary recovery tool were espousing it at a national mental health conference in They described the horrific life circumstances that had previously characterized their lives including continuing episodes of psychosis, delusional thinking, and bizarre behavior.
Although this program has never gotten the credit it deserves, it can be a valuable guide to recovery. It can also be easily incorporated into other recovery-focused programs. Although numerous articles have been written that support this valuable work, supportive research is lacking. People who have involuntary commitments might use the skills and strategies of Recovery, Inc. Peer-to-Peer McNuly, , is an experiential learning program for people with serious mental health difficulties that was developed by Kathryn McNulty under the auspices of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill.
McNulty is a user of mental health services, a former provider and manager in the mental health field, and a longtime mutual support group member and facilitator. This program consists of nine 2-hour units and is taught by a team of three trained people who are personally experienced at living well with mental health difficulties. In discussing this program with NcNulty, she said that each class contains a combination of lecture and interactive exercise material and closes with Mindfulness Practice techniques offered to develop and expand awareness.
Each class builds on the one before: Participants come away from the course with a binder of hand-out materials as well as with many other tangible resources: Although this curriculum contains many exercises that are validating, the aspects of mandatory attendance, the focus on diagnosis, and the lack of flexibility in implementation made this curriculum less useful as a model for those who have had orders of involuntary commitment, for whom self-determination is critical.
While the researchers found much useful information in this curriculum, particularly the descriptions of self help tools and strategies, they felt that people who have involuntary commitments might find this program offensive because of its heavy emphasis on the medical model and its use of medical language. In addition, being a scripted curriculum, it lacks the flexibility needed by people who have different learning styles, needs, and preferences.
The Peer Bridger Program in New York State has been in existence for many years and may be one of the earliest attempts to reintegrate people who were in state hospitals back into the community. They are currently focusing on work with adult homes, building community resources and connections, and training peers to support people in developing advance directives.
Peer Bridger has been successful in helping peers develop mutually supportive and beneficial relationships that allow for new role development and healthier community relationships. Hospital staff members have moved from skepticism to unconditional support of this peer program Matthew Matai, personal communication, February 23, The effectiveness of this program has been studied by several rigorous research projects MacNeil, , The ComPeer program matches people with involuntary commitment orders with community volunteers who share similar interests.
However, in this program, the ComPeer is considered part of the clinical team and reports back to the team. This might make it difficult for the person who is being supported to feel that the relationship is mutual and to be trusting of the ComPeer.
Volunteers for ComPeer are trained in a medical approach to mental health and so potentially come with some assumptions that may be inaccurate about the people they mentor.
This program has been helpful in connecting people with resources outside the mental health community. Also the relationship with someone outside the treatment arena potentially allows for a more reciprocal relationship see www. An Alternative Approach is a comprehensive curriculum developed by Shery Mead that effectively deals with all aspects of peer support from a relational perspective Mead, Although other peer support curriculums tend to focus on peers in service provision and have little applicability to the people in this study, this curriculum addresses in depth all aspects of a topic that is difficult for everyone, developing and maintaining relationships.
Mead defines peer support and discusses its applicability to addressing mental health issues and recovery. Topics include subjects that are commonly overlooked, like how to make first contact, language that helps and language that hurts, listening in ways that raise consciousness and encourage self reflection, negotiating relationships, setting limits, dealing with power related issues, issues related to internalized oppressions and learned helplessness, redefining safety, negotiating risk, and dealing with conflict.
She includes specific information on peer support within the mental health system, peer-run warm lines, and peers running a crisis alternative respite program Mead, The author and Shery Mead discovered in their trainings that people were combining Wellness Recovery Action Planning and peer support methodologies, sometimes well and sometimes not well, and were sometimes violating the values and ethics that are intended to guide these initiatives.
This comprehensive work describes a flexible approach that is easily adapted to meet specific needs. It provides an in-depth review of the WRAP process in a peer support context.
This chapter reviewed pertinent aspects of involuntary commitment, the values and ethics of mental health recovery and peer support, definitions of mental health recovery, recovery-related research, peer support in mental health, the history of recovery interventions in Vermont related to individuals who were involuntarily committed, and programs that have been used to address the needs of people with orders of involuntary commitment.
The following chapters describe how the literature that was reviewed prior to and during this study informed the Moving Ahead Project and the development of the Community Links Program. They were searching for researchers who would address the question: The proposal, titled Moving Ahead, was accepted in May In developing the proposal and program design, and in implementing the project, the funders and researchers were cognizant of the following issues:.
These parameters clearly restricted project activities. Of particular relevance to this project is the belief that each person is the expert on her- or himself. Therefore, to be consistent with these values the data came primarily from people who have had or currently have orders of involuntary commitment. These people were difficult to engage as they often did not trust the system or anything sponsored by the system Mead, In a recent Vermont study of people who have been involuntarily medicated, the researchers were not able to get any volunteers to participate in the study.
Each person in every interaction was treated as a recovering person. The focus was on working together with all stakeholders to increase mutual understanding and knowledge, and to promote wellness. Therefore the lived experience of the researchers was significant, and opportunities for people who were interested in this project to meet and work together were included in all aspects of the project.
The language used in the study was nonmedical, nonclinical, and nondiagnostic. It was understood that participants in this project may have histories of trauma and abuse, and that sensitivity to this issue was supported through all parts of the research process Mead, The body of knowledge concerning mental health recovery and peer support is constantly expanding.
The findings of this study and the resulting program are contributing to that body of knowledge. They are not considered to be the final answer. The findings from this study were used to develop a program rather than to find out how an existing program is working.
Prior to this study and the Community Links program, there was no program in Vermont to specifically address the needs of people who have orders of involuntary commitment and to facilitate their recovery and independence. Qualitative research methods were used for this study because the project was clearly concerned with identifying a process rather than defining an end point or outcomes as would be expected in a quantitative study. As stated by Morse , the project clearly fit within the parameters of qualitative research because a there was a lack of theory and previous research on the issue of using mental health recovery-oriented practices and peer support in addressing the needs of people with orders of involuntary commitment, b there was a need to study, explore, and describe issues related to this topic to better meet the needs of people in this group, and c this problem was not suited to quantitative study because there was not sufficient information to establish precise response categories in advance.
Of the many qualitative models of study, an action research process was chosen for this study because it focuses on resolving a problem or addressing an issue Patton, As described by Lewin , action research is a three-step spiral process of a planning, which involves reconnaissance; b taking action; and c fact-finding about the results of the action.
In this project, the researchers intensively studied issues related to the recovery needs of people who had orders of involuntary commitment, developed and implemented a pilot project based on the findings, and then evaluated the pilot project. The researchers have recommended that this action research process be repeated over time to continue to refine this program and develop other effective strategies to promote the recovery of people in this group.
Other research models that were considered, such as narrative research Polkinghorne, , ethnography Denzin, , and life story models Hertz, , would have taken more time and been more costly. The research became part of the process of change by engaging the people, in this case people who have orders of involuntary commitment, in the process of studying and solving their own problems.
As is often the case with action research, the research, the resulting program, and the evaluation became blurred as the project proceeded, and the research process became less formal even as it was generating useful information. Through the study process, it was noted that the participants began to feel a sense of hope, to understand that they have value, and to believe that what they have to say about their own lives is important and significant Patton, The researchers found themselves in multiple challenging roles that included facilitator, collaborator, instructor, counselor, and friend in support of the people involved in the study.
Although in most action research the findings are seldom disseminated beyond the program within which the study takes place, in this particular case the findings of the study will be written into a full report for use by the Vermont State Department of Mental Health and may be the subject of several articles that will appear in mental heath journals.
Although each board had specific and differing areas of concern, both boards agreed that people who have had repeated involuntary commitments are a vulnerable population and that extra precautions and care were necessary to protect their interests and rights. Comprehensive applications were developed that described every aspect of the process of interviewing study participants.
Initial applications were returned and needed extensive revision in order to be approved. Coming to agreement with both of these boards on how to handle issues related to vulnerability was challenging, took more time than anticipated, and delayed the interviews.
However, it did help to assure that this project would be carried out in a rigorous manner, paying close attention to the needs of each project participant. There was also a discrepancy between the two IRB boards. The Vermont Board wanted interviews to be limited to an hour.
The Union Board felt that longer interviews would be needed; however, they acceded to the requirements of the Vermont Board. In retrospect, the hour-long interviews worked well, and longer interviews might have been difficult for some of the participants. If there had been more time for the project, additional interviews with these participants might have produced even more enlightening data.
The researchers had planned to train a cadre of people who have had mental health difficulties and a history of involuntary commitments to interview the study participants.
Through the IRB process, it became clear that this would not be possible. The training and intensive oversight that would have been needed if inexperienced people conducted the interviews did not fit within the parameters of this grant.
Therefore the principal investigator and coresearcher did all of the interviewing in the study. The IRB process took much longer than anticipated because the boards did not respond promptly to the applications. In future projects, more time needs to be allowed in the project timeline for this process. Because of this delay, timelines had to be revised repeatedly; and it was necessary to work more intensively when the applications were approved to keep within the project timeline.
A bookkeeper was also hired to distribute funds and develop financial reports. All direct contact with interviewees and potential interviewees was carried out by the principal investigator and the coresearcher to assure adherence to the requirements of the Institutional Review Boards. A toll free confidential phone line was set up to receive calls from possible study participants.
The researchers responded to these calls. An intensive publicity campaign at the beginning of the project was effective and successful. The purpose of this campaign was to:. Inform people about the study. In a small state like Vermont where many people have an investment in the mental health system, people like to know what is going on. They tend to be distrustful and unsupportive if they are not fully informed.
Articles describing the project were published in the quarterly newspaper of Vermont Psychiatric Survivors a peer-run mental health education and support organization and in other newspapers across the state. Descriptive posters were posted in key locations around the state including bulletin boards at community mental health centers, drop-in centers, churches, grocery stores, and other public places.
The principal investigator and the coresearcher described the project at a meeting of administrators of community rehabilitation teams, gave them information to distribute, and asked them to talk to people who might be interested in attending the focus groups or the interviews. Staff from Vermont Psychiatric Survivors networked information through their statewide system of support groups.
The principal investigator and the coresearcher made personal calls to key contacts around the state. As a result of this campaign, people in the mental health system statewide learned about and supported the project. The informational and focus groups were well attended. Many people inquired about the study. Twenty-eight people were interviewed, almost twice as many as had been planned.
It is hoped that articles about the study and networking activities had some informational benefits in the greater community that cannot be monitored or measured. Although this campaign was time consuming, it was well worth the effort and would be advisable for future similar projects.
The researchers set up and worked with two advisory boards. In addition to advising the researchers, people on these boards recruited participants, collected data, gave feedback on the study and pilot project design, assisted with implementation of the pilot project, and coordinated efforts to continue project activities after the pilot project was complete. They offered differing perspectives and were essential to the research process. Both advisory boards presented challenges that took patience, consideration, and consultation to resolve.
The Vermont State Department of Mental Health Advisory Board included the state project officer, several state officials, the executive director of Vermont Psychiatric Survivors, and the state coordinator of the mental health recovery education program. At least two of the people on this board were people who have had mental health difficulties and have been users of the mental health system.
Contact with this board was through an initial face-to-face meeting, followed by monthly conference calls. Board members were available for consultation as needed. At the first meeting, the board reviewed the project design and related research, and discussed anticipated problems in recruiting volunteers. After this face-to-face meeting there were monthly conference calls, members of the committee reviewed documents on an on-going basis, and there was e-mail correspondence to address timely issues.
Although much of this input was helpful and facilitated connection with Vermont Legal Aid and the Vermont Agency of Protection and Advocacy, inconsistent participation by members who then challenged decisions made in their absence hampered this mutual work.
Key to the success of this committee was the consistent dedication of the state project officer who often cleared the way for progress when others seemed intent on an agenda that was less than supportive. Several state officials attempted to micromanage the project from time to time.
This was frustrating, and the researchers had to use patience and negotiation skills to resolve these issues. The Moving Ahead Project Advisory Board consisted of eight people who were selected by the researchers because they had expertise and experience that was expected to be helpful to the project. The board membership included a person representing the Vermont State Agency of Protection and Advocacy and the director of a regional acute care facility.
The rest of the board members were people who have used mental health services and who have either had current experience with or have histories of involuntary commitment. Meetings were held with this group every other month. The researchers consulted with board members between meetings.
This board was primarily validating and supportive, giving suggestions that broadened perspectives and helped in defining the Community Links Project. Inconsistent attendance and failure to review the interim reports that were used to keep them updated hampered the process. In addition, one person was very contentious, trying and sometimes succeeding to use the meeting to meet her personal needs, and making it difficult to get our agenda done.
It became apparent that it is important to get references for people serving on boards to keep energy from being needlessly wasted. Board members worked together well, using a negotiation and problem-solving process to resolve this difficulty. The purpose of these gatherings was to inform people about the project, to recruit people to serve on the advisory boards and volunteer for the study, and to ask for input on:. Questions that can be asked of people on involuntary commitment to build a better understanding of what will be helpful to them;.
These meetings were recorded, and the information was used to guide the study and develop the semistructured interview guide. Although it would have been preferable to have separate focus groups and informational meetings, the timeline of the project would have made this difficult. However, given the power of the focus group, it was important to include this strategy, even in a less than perfect context.
He goes on to say:. However, participants need not agree with each other or reach any kind of consensus. Nor is it necessary for people to disagree. The object is to get high-quality data in a social context where people can consider their own views in the context of the views of others. An average of 10 people attended each of these group meetings. Reminder phone calls to key people made it possible for some people who would not otherwise have transportation to attend.
Several mental health workers brought van loads of people. Participants included people on involuntary commitment orders, people who had been on these orders in the past, people who had been in the mental health system but who had not been on orders, clinicians, administrators, and family members.
The researchers began the meetings by describing the project and the need to recruit people to serve on a project advisory board and people who would be willing to be interviewed.
This was followed by a rich discussion of the issues. These meetings began to give the researchers perspective on how people feel about involuntary commitment orders and possibilities about the kind of initiative that might be helpful. Suggestions from the participants were helpful in developing the semi-structured interview guide to use in the interviews.
The researchers facilitated these recorded meetings. Specific information and lists of concerns were written on a newsprint pad. In addition the researchers wrote field notes after each meeting. Some of the concerns identified by the various stakeholder groups at these meetings included:.
It was hoped that at least 15 people would be interviewed in this study. However, there were two major issues that the researchers felt might hamper recruitment efforts. Because this tends to be a group of people who have been treated badly in society and in the mental health system, it was assumed that they might have issues that would keep them from volunteering, such as trusting others and trusting the mental health system.
These efforts to recruit people who had orders of involuntary commitment were extraordinarily successful. Because, as previously stated, people who have these orders tend to be distrustful, people on the advisory boards warned the researchers that recruitment would be difficult and that the goal of interviewing 15 people would not be reached.
Actually, 40 people volunteered to be interviewed and 28 people were interviewed. Feedback from people who agreed to be interviewed suggests that the stipend was very important to them and was probably the primary factor that encouraged them to participate.
The letters from Vermont Legal Aid and contacts by staff on the Community Rehabilitation Teams also seemed to be key factors in this successful recruitment effort. Study participants noted that they appreciated the confidential toll-free line and knowing that the people who did the interviews had experience as users of the mental health system.
There were 16 men and 12 women in the study, representing proportionally the usual number of people in the state who have these orders.
The population of Vermont is , The group to be interviewed was extremely diverse. Common characteristics are difficult to identify. Some interviewees came from extreme poverty. Others came from backgrounds of wealth and privilege. The advantage that those people who came from wealth and privilege had was that they could hire lawyers so they had more input into their orders and had more choice in care options.
A few had less than a high school education, but most had at least graduated from high school. Some were obviously intellectually gifted. Several had advanced degrees and had been proficient in their fields prior to their involvement with the mental health system.
Only one person was currently employed. Another was planning to go back to college. All of the participants had been involved with the mental health system for many years. The shortest time was two years and the longest more than 25 years. People had a general sense of despair and resignation about their lives. This affected their motivation. In discussing possibilities like recovery education and peer support, although some said these initiatives might be helpful, there was little genuine enthusiasm about anything that was suggested, and no belief that anything positive was going to happen.
Each person had a tumultuous and trauma-filled history that often included severe loss. Although most of this occurred prior to their involvement with the mental health system, some severe trauma and loss occurred within the mental health system and was related to mental health treatment e.
With several notable exceptions, the physical health of the interviewees was poor. People were overweight, had various movement disabilities, and had serious chronic illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. Although they knew they had these conditions, they had little information about anything they could do to help themselves other than medical interventions.
Only one person talked about trying to maintain a healthy diet and work on weight loss. The study participants had little insight or knowledge about the possible causes of mental health difficulties and knew little about their own treatment, alternative treatments, and self-help strategies for addressing mental health difficulties.
They were accustomed to having things done to them rather than taking the initiative to help themselves. People also had notably limited systems of connection. Others had only several supportive people in their lives. Some could only name care providers as people in their circle of support.
Most had lost connection with family members and did not feel part of any community. All of the people interviewed had a history of being perceived as dangerous, either to themselves, family members, or the community.
The researchers were warned in advance that the interviewees were potentially dangerous. Prior to the interviews, the researchers expressed some anxiety about safety. Consultants from Vermont Protection and Advocacy taught them how to deescalate difficult situations and how to quickly leave a situation that had the potential to be dangerous.
However, the researchers did not experience any situations in which they felt they were in danger. The interviewees were interviewed by either the principal investigator or the coresearcher in one-hour interviews. The researchers worked with the interviewee to arrange a place for the interview that was most comfortable and convenient for the interviewee.
Before beginning the interviews, the researchers, using data gathered in the focus group meetings, developed an interview guide. The interview guide is prepared to ensure that the same basic lines of inquiry are pursued with each person interviewed. It will provide topic or subject areas within which the interviewer is free to explore, probe, and ask questions that will elucidate and illuminate that particular subject.
Revisiting a question first studied empirically in the s, Donohue and Levitt argued that the legalization of abortion can account for almost half of the reduction in crime witnessed in the s. This paper has sparked much controversy, to which Levitt has said. When the corrections were made, Foote and Goetz argued that abortion actually increased violent crime instead of decreasing it and did not affect property crime. They even concluded that the majority of women who had abortions in the s were middle class whites rather than low income minorities as Levitt stated; this was, they stated, because white middle class women had the financial means for an abortion.
To be politically incorrect is one thing; to be simply incorrect quite another. Foote and Goetz, however, soon produced a rebuttal of their own and showed that even after analyzing the data using the methods that Levitt and Donohue recommend, the data does not show a positive correlation between abortion rates and crime rates.
In a paper on the effect of police hiring on crime rates, Levitt used the timing of mayoral and gubernatorial elections as an instrumental variable to identify a causal effect of police on crime.
Past studies had been inconclusive because of the simultaneity inherent in police hiring when crime increases, more police are hired to combat crime. The findings of this paper were found to be the result of a programming error. Ayres and Levitt used a new dataset on the prevalence of LoJack automobile anti-theft devices to estimate the social externality associated with its use.
They find that the marginal social benefit of Lojack is fifteen times greater than the marginal social cost in high crime areas, but that those who install LoJack obtain less than ten percent of the total social benefits. Another paper finds that juvenile criminals are at least as responsive to criminal sanctions as adults. Sharp drops in crime at the age of maturity suggest that deterrence plays an important role in the decision to commit a crime.
Levitt and Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh analyzed a unique dataset which details the financial activities of a drug-selling street gang. They found that wage earnings in the gang were somewhat higher than legal market alternatives, but did not offset the increased risks associated with selling drugs.
They suggested that the prospect of high future earnings is the primary economic motivation for being in a gang. Levitt and Porter find that drivers with alcohol in their blood are seven times more likely to cause a fatal crash than a sober driver those above the legal limit are 13 times more likely than a sober driver.
Duggan and Levitt showed how non-linear payoff schemes establish incentives for corruption and the authors used the non-linearity to provide substantial statistical evidence that cheating is taking place in Japanese sumo wrestling.
Brian and Levitt developed an algorithm to detect teachers who cheat for their students on standardized tests. They found that the observed frequency of cheating appears to respond strongly to relatively minor changes in incentives. It concludes that campaign spending has a very small impact on election outcomes, regardless of who does the spending. On the subject of federal spending and elections, previous empirical studies were not able to establish that members of Congress are rewarded by the electorate for bringing federal dollars to their district because of omitted variables bias.
Levitt settled the second defamation claim by admitting in a letter to John B. McCall that he himself was a peer reviewer in the issue of the Journal of Law and Economics , that Lott had not engaged in bribery paying for extra costs of printing and postage for a conference issue is customary , and that he knew that "scholars with varying opinions" including Levitt himself had been invited to participate.
Levitt drew criticism for writing an article called "Hoodwinked? The chapter compared the two as having power derived from secret information. Their highly-anticipated debut LP on International Anthem is now available worldwide. Read more about it here. Lemon Bucket Orkestra is a guerilla-punk-balkan-folk-brass band massive like no other.
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Hailing originally from Ann Arbor Michigan, the band Ghettobillies have seen and done it all. Jason Church moved to Chicago to seek out better opportunities for their band. Except perhaps for a brief stint in Bogota Columbia where one of them worked as a gun runner for Juan Garcia Abrego an infamous South American drug cartel who smuggled some of the largest shipments of pure Columbian snow into North America , touring nonstop for 12 years brought this band to a skill level and maturity rarely seen on the local level anymore.
John Maloney , joined the not so well known supergroup back in and rythm section "life partner" and child prodigy bassist Bong AKA: Matthew Longbons jumped on the preverbial bandwagon, the circle of ridiculousness was complete.
Masters in each of their chosen fields, the band Ghettobillies knew no musical boundaries and in the words of one famous writer from Rolling Stone magazine, " Those guys play whatever the hell they want! And ridiculous that they make a conscious effort not to gear their entire image, lyrics and sound towards 1 specific microcosm of teenage subculture.
Ridiculous that they refuse to bow to the obvious might and glory that is the magnificent recording industry. Utterly ridiculous that they continue on their hopeless quest of recognition, quality, and artistic integrity. Since that time, the band Ghettobillies have tirelessly toured all over the midwest, east coast and United Kingdom and succeeded in creating their own enormous underground cult following without the help of any record labels, supergroup managers, well known promoters, or really anyone actually legitimately involved in the music industry at all.
Though they have always sought out the help of said agencies and companies, they have mostly been ignored by every major and independent record label that exists from time immortal and most likely will continue to be.
Why is the world so unfair to men who work so hard and deliver so much to so many? Sat, Oct 13 - 9: Stoneking is the embodiment of what some would say is a bygone era of music. From his rasping jungle-rock-blues, to his well-oiled locks, and his familiar all white clothing ensemble, he has converted fans across the world to his unique style.
A first generation Australian of American-descent, C. He has lived in isolated farmhouses working as a handyman, and been involved in and survived a shipwreck, spending time in Africa, and touring internationally as a recording artist. After spending the past half of a decade stamping his inimitable stylings across the UK and Europe, C. Far from the sepia toned tales of marooned adventures in the tropics of his latest release, Jungle Blues, C.
This unique structure allows the story to resonate with audience members as they experience the accompanying song covered by our house band, The First Time Four. It is hard to tell what the audience enjoys more each story or each song. Join us as readers interpret the theme First Game. Thu, Oct 18 - 9: Dead Rider Trio Featuring Mr. Paul Williams features Mr. Paul Williams on words and performance on top of Dead Rider playing their wicked, rumbling inspirations.
Whipped up by the tour dates and promo cycle of Crew Licks, Dead Rider were feeling hot enough to jam, and just let the tape roll! This is where the intrepid Mr. Paul Williams came in. Paul Williams thinks big, with no concern for the details, a living testament to the supernatural, transformational power of belief.
This is his art. Basically, everybody involved was hearing it for the first time when they did it. Matt, Todd and White Christmas - walking the crooked path of rock with a mutant gusto belonging to no one but Dead Rider well, probably to the people listening to Dead Rider, also! With a High energy performance and a unique sound this band is a must see. The transcendent group seamlessly brings together genres as diverse as melodic rock, fusion, funk, progressive rock, classic rock, hip hop and jazz.
High South band mates - Kevin Campos, Jamey Garner and Phoenix Mendoza - three gifted "lead singersongwriters" delivering one undeniable voice - are produced by Josh Leo. Thu, Oct 25 - 8: Great Moments in Vinyl presents Great Moments in Vinyl takes the tribute experience to a new level.
Contextual Essay. Involuntary Commitment and Recovery: An Innovative Mental Health Peer Support Program. Mary Ellen Copeland Union Institute & University, Learner #
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