It tells the sender about the willingness of the receiver to accept data. It tells the sender at what speed the data is supposed to be sent to the receiver to keep away fromdevastating the receiver. Standards provide guidelines to the manufacturers, vendors, government agencies and service provider. It ensures connectivity and compatibility of the device. It also helps in maintaining market competitiveness and guarantees interoperability.
These are classified into 2 categories:. It means by facts or by convention. The standards that are not approved by any organization but are widely used are De facto standards. These are established by manufacturers. It means by law or by regulation. These standards are legislated and permitted by a organization that is officially recognized. It is a hierarchical protocol prepared up of interactive modules, all of which provides a precise functionality. The term hierarchical means that each upper level protocol is supported by the services provided by one or more lower level protocols.
The router is involved in only three layers; there is no transport or application layer in a router as long as the router is used only for routing. Protocol responsible for dictating format of data sent, exactly where it is sent to and maintaining data integrity such as TCP and UDP. Purely transports data packets datagrams across network boundaries. Open system interconnection represents a generalization of concepts of inter process communication so that any open system may be technically able to communicate with another open system.
Systems achieve openness by following certain architecture and obeying standard protocols. These standards are open for anybody to use and implement unlike proprietary architectures whose implementation details are always either trade secrets or covered by patent rights. The OSI architecture is the first step towards standardization. The OSI architecture is therefore called reference model for open system interconnection.
In the OSI reference model, the communication functions are divided into hierarchy of seven layers as shown in the figure. It is also referred to as the 7-layer model. The transmission medium is not included in the seven layers and, therefore it can be regarded as the 0 th layer.
To make communication among multiple devices efficiently, a process used is called Switching. A switched network is made up of a sequence of interlinked nodes, called Switches. Switching is the process of routing traffic by setting up temporary connections between multiple network points. This is done by devices located at different locations on the network. It is worth mentioning another concept related to protocol layering in the Internet, addressing.
Any communication that involves two parties needs two addresses: Routing is the process of moving information across an internet from a source to a destination. The main function of network layer is to route packets from source to destination. To accomplish this a route through the network must be selected. Routing is the process of deciding on the optimal route between a source and destination node in a network.
Ethernet LAN topology is currently the most common network architecture. Ethernet networks are passive, which means Ethernet hubs do not reprocess or alter the signal sent by the attached devices. Ethernet became the most powerful standard because it was able to update itself to the current needs. A multiple access protocol is used as a synchronization system for links that are used to connect stations or devices or hosts.
This multiple access is mainly used in the MAC sublayer of the data link layer. Taxonomy of Multiple Access. In this method, every station is treated equally, no station is superior or inferior. Depending on the state of medium at each instance the protocol defines a procedure to decide on whether to send or receive data.
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We assist if you Need Computer Network and Communication Assignment help to understand the subject better so that you can make your assignments on your own. A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data.
According to our Computer Network and Communication Assignment help team in computer networks, networked computing devices network nodes pass data to each other along data connections.
The connections network links between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet. It is a technical definition of computer networking, however in native terms it can be understood as a complex structure that connects different people sitting in remote geographical locations. Communication is facilitated using data packets that are routed through the network. The mode of connection of the computers in a network is called Topology.
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